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نادي جامعة القاهرة للتعليم المفتوح
*maryam

حلقة دراسية ترم تاني دور يناير 2014

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bism allah 



السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته أهلا بيكم طلبة ترم تاني أداب ترجمة


اتمنى من كل طالب او طالبة بالترم الثاني بتحضر تكتب لزمايلها ملخص للمحاضرات هنا ولكم جزيل الشكر




ارجو التفاعل والمشاركة



flower flower 

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انا ضميت الترمين الاول والتانى ياريييييييت اللى عنده اى معلومات او حضر محاضرات ينزلها لانى خارج مصر وطبعا مش بحضر محاضرات
thanks

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ضرووووووري جدااااااااا....
انا ضميت ترم اول وتانى على بعض وانا خارج مصر والكتب لسه فى طريقها ليا 
ففتحت صفحتى علىموقع الجامعه لقيت ال10 مواد بس منهم  ..
ماده الصوتيات مكتوب فى ورق المحاضرات ترم 4
وماده نصوص من الادب العربى ترم 8
علم اللغه والتراكيب والدلاله ترم 6
وانا اصلا ترم اول وتانى مش عارفه بقى كده فى ايه هما منزلين لى حاجات غلط ولا ايه 
حد يقولى
noo

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أعتقد والله أعلم عشان انتي ضامة تيرمين مع بعض
ففي مواد مينفعش تتحط مع بعض
لازم تنجحي في مواد قبل ما تخدي مواد


مثلا يعني بالنسبة ليا انا كنت ضامة تيرمين فــ مينفعش آخد رياضة2 وأنا منجحتش في رياضة1 وهكذا


يارب أكون فدتك ولو بمعلومة بسيطة.


وان شاء الله حد غيري يفيدك أكتر..


في أمان الله..

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nora كتب:
أعتقد والله أعلم عشان انتي ضامة تيرمين مع بعض
ففي مواد مينفعش تتحط مع بعض
لازم تنجحي في مواد قبل ما تخدي مواد


مثلا يعني بالنسبة ليا انا كنت ضامة تيرمين فــ مينفعش آخد رياضة2 وأنا منجحتش في رياضة1 وهكذا


يارب أكون فدتك ولو بمعلومة بسيطة.


وان شاء الله حد غيري يفيدك أكتر..


في أمان الله..
شكرااااااا نورا حببتى لاهتمامك. flower بس يااااارب حد يقولى لانى متلغبطه جدااااااااااااااااا

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على ايه انا معملتش حاجة احنا هنا كلنا اخوة بنساعد بعض..
ان شاء الله هتلاقي حد يفيدك..


أشكرك.flower 
في أمان الله..

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hadie elashrey كتب:
ضرووووووري جدااااااااا....
انا ضميت ترم اول وتانى على بعض وانا خارج مصر والكتب لسه فى طريقها ليا 
ففتحت صفحتى علىموقع الجامعه لقيت ال10 مواد بس منهم  ..
ماده الصوتيات مكتوب فى ورق المحاضرات ترم 4
وماده نصوص من الادب العربى ترم 8
علم اللغه والتراكيب والدلاله ترم 6
وانا اصلا ترم اول وتانى مش عارفه بقى كده فى ايه هما منزلين لى حاجات غلط ولا ايه 
حد يقولى
noo
الله يعينك ياهدى على ال 10 مواد وان شاء الله موفقة.بالنسبة للمواد واختلاف الترمات هي اكيد مش غلط ولا حاجة لسببين اولا ان في مواد ليها متطلب بمعنى انك لازم تنجحي في مادة من الترم عشان تاخدي اختها من الترم اللي بعده والسبب التاني ان في مواد بتتعارض مع مواد في ايام الامتحانات عشان كده الموظف بيضطر يديكي مواد من ترمات اعلى.

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gina mikhail كتب:
يا جماعة انا لسة مسجلتش و عايزة اعرف اخر معاد للتسجيل ؟
التسجيل متاح الان ، ولم يعلن بعد عن موعد انتهاء التسجيل .

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mor كتب:
gina mikhail كتب:
يا جماعة انا لسة مسجلتش و عايزة اعرف اخر معاد للتسجيل ؟
التسجيل متاح الان ، ولم يعلن بعد عن موعد انتهاء التسجيل .
متشكرة جدا

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Hussein1974 كتب:
hadie elashrey كتب:
ضرووووووري جدااااااااا....
انا ضميت ترم اول وتانى على بعض وانا خارج مصر والكتب لسه فى طريقها ليا 
ففتحت صفحتى علىموقع الجامعه لقيت ال10 مواد بس منهم  ..
ماده الصوتيات مكتوب فى ورق المحاضرات ترم 4
وماده نصوص من الادب العربى ترم 8
علم اللغه والتراكيب والدلاله ترم 6
وانا اصلا ترم اول وتانى مش عارفه بقى كده فى ايه هما منزلين لى حاجات غلط ولا ايه 
حد يقولى
noo
الله يعينك ياهدى على ال 10 مواد وان شاء الله موفقة.بالنسبة للمواد واختلاف الترمات هي اكيد مش غلط ولا حاجة لسببين اولا ان في مواد ليها متطلب بمعنى انك لازم تنجحي في مادة من الترم عشان تاخدي اختها من الترم اللي بعده والسبب التاني ان في مواد بتتعارض مع مواد في ايام الامتحانات عشان كده الموظف بيضطر يديكي مواد من ترمات اعلى.
متشكره جدااااا اشتاذ حسين لذوقك ...ياريت تفيدينى ازاى اوفق بين المواد دى فى المذاكره واذاكر منين من الكتب ولا المحاضرات المكتوبه اللى على صفحتى ولا منين بالظبط thanks

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hadie elashrey كتب:
Hussein1974 كتب:
hadie elashrey كتب:
ضرووووووري جدااااااااا....
انا ضميت ترم اول وتانى على بعض وانا خارج مصر والكتب لسه فى طريقها ليا 
ففتحت صفحتى علىموقع الجامعه لقيت ال10 مواد بس منهم  ..
ماده الصوتيات مكتوب فى ورق المحاضرات ترم 4
وماده نصوص من الادب العربى ترم 8
علم اللغه والتراكيب والدلاله ترم 6
وانا اصلا ترم اول وتانى مش عارفه بقى كده فى ايه هما منزلين لى حاجات غلط ولا ايه 
حد يقولى
noo
الله يعينك ياهدى على ال 10 مواد وان شاء الله موفقة.بالنسبة للمواد واختلاف الترمات هي اكيد مش غلط ولا حاجة لسببين اولا ان في مواد ليها متطلب بمعنى انك لازم تنجحي في مادة من الترم عشان تاخدي اختها من الترم اللي بعده والسبب التاني ان في مواد بتتعارض مع مواد في ايام الامتحانات عشان كده الموظف بيضطر يديكي مواد من ترمات اعلى.
متشكره جدااااا اشتاذ حسين لذوقك ...ياريت تفيدينى ازاى اوفق بين المواد دى فى المذاكره واذاكر منين من الكتب ولا المحاضرات المكتوبه اللى على صفحتى ولا منين بالظبط thanks
ياعزيزتي لا شكر على واجب وبالنسبة للمذاكرة أكيد الأفضل ليكي تلتزمي بالمحاضرات التليفزيونية والمكتوبة والتطبيقات اللي على صفحتك لانك معاكي مواد كتير.

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السلام عليكم
 هو ليه مش في تفاعل ف التيرم الثاني الاخوة مش بينزلوا محاضرات التيرم  ده عايزة افهم مفيش حضور من الدكاتره ولا الطلبة
جزاكم الله خيرا ومبروك كل اللي نجح

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*maryam كتب:
bism allah 



السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته أهلا بيكم طلبة ترم تاني أداب ترجمة


اتمنى من كل طالب او طالبة بالترم الثاني بتحضر تكتب لزمايلها ملخص للمحاضرات هنا ولكم جزيل الشكر




ارجو التفاعل والمشاركة



flower flower 
السلام عليكم
كل عام وانتى بخير يا مريم
وحشتينى 

انا مش عارفة ابعتلك رسالة خاصة بيطلعى كده
لا تتوفر بعد على عدد كافي من المساهمات في المنتدى يمكنك من استعمال الرسائل الخاصة.


كنت عايز اسألك انا غبت امتحانات الترم اللى فات ومحضرتش غير النحو بس 

يعنى عندى 4 مواد ما تعرفيش اخدهم ازاى ؟؟؟
اخر معاد للتسجيل امتى ؟
وكنت عايزة اعرف فى تقديم عن طريق البنك والطريقة ازاى ؟؟

وهل يوم الجمعة مفتوح للتسجيل

شكرا لمجهوداتك  انتى وكل الموجودين وعارفة انى بزعجكم

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اخر ميعاد للتسجيل 5 ديسمبر 2013 حتى الان 


التقديم عن طريق المركز او احدي فروعه ( الاقاليم ) او الوكلاء بالخارج


ولابد من اخذ ايصال من الجهات المبينة اعلاه وتقديمه للبنك للسداد 


ولا يوجد تسجيل يوم الجمعة 


موفقة ان شاء الله 

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mor كتب:
اخر ميعاد للتسجيل 5 ديسمبر 2013 حتى الان 


التقديم عن طريق المركز او احدي فروعه ( الاقاليم ) او الوكلاء بالخارج


ولابد من اخذ ايصال من الجهات المبينة اعلاه وتقديمه للبنك للسداد 


ولا يوجد تسجيل يوم الجمعة 


موفقة ان شاء الله 
طيب تمام 
الحمد لله
شكرا جدا [b]mor[/b]
بالتوفيق للجميع

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السلام عليكم ورحمة الله . 

من فضلكم كنت عايزة كتاب الكالتشر ترم تاني  (الرابط بتاع الكتاب ) . 


للعلم انا حملته من ع موقع الجامعة بس بيظهر لي باور بوينت ومش بيحمل ع الجهاز عندي 

هل كده عند الجميع ولا عندي بس 

وياريت لو في رابط قديم للكتاب . وجزاكم الله خيرا .

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السلام عليكم ، ياريت لو حد بيحضر المادة الثقافية يقولى هل الدكتورة قالت نذاكر السبع محاضرات والتطبيقات واله فيهم حاجة ملغية وايه اهم حاجة نركز عليها

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تــرم تـــانى 
مواد القراءة والفهم والترجمة بتكون unseen
يعنى من برا المنهج 
ممكن تكون احداث جارية ممكن تكون مقالات 
انتو ونصبيكم 

مواد النحو والجرامر 
دول ضرورى جدااا يتذاكرو من تطبيقات الصفحة الشخصية 
وسيبكو من الملخصات لان المادتين دول لازم يتعرفو كويس جداا لانهم هيفيدكم بعد كدا باذن الله 

اما بقى مادة قصدى الكالتشر 
دى بقى مفيش حاجة منها ملغية
====================

منقول

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Culture Seconde Term
by مركز جامعة القاهرة للتعليم المفتوح


ملخص لمادة الثقافية تيرم تاني 


Culture Seconde Term :



1-What is the main characteristic of the Stone Age?



The main characteristic of the Stone Age is that stone was the basic material from which all tools and weapons were made by



Man then. Everything was mainly made of stone.



2-Give examples of tools that were used in the Old Stone Age



Tools used were mainly made of sharpened stone such as; axes,



hammers, needles and knives.



1-When did the Bronze Age start?



When immigrants arrived to the British Isles from central Europe, probably from Spain or Portugal, they started enhancing the Britons' skills. They made them mix tin with copper to get a harder metal; bronze .With the appearance of this new material the Bronze Age started.



2-How was bronze better than stone?



Stone is a soft material if compared to copper or bronze. During the Stone Age the early settlers couldn’t plough the land properly simply because they didn’t have appropriate tools to turn the land. Now by mixing tin with copper, people can get a harder material that can help them in farming.



3-Where was tin found in Britain?



Tin mining began in natural reserves located in northwest Britain.



4-Can you give examples of the materials and weapons during that time?



Some of the examples of the materials and weapons used during those times are the arrows, swords, spikes, round barrows etc. Pottery tools like pottery jars, buckles, and brooches made from gold, bronze cups, daggers, adornments made from stones, necklaces made from precious material etc...



5-How did life change in Britain during the Bronze Age?



Life changed, people learned to live with better living standards in the Bronze Age and the community that existed at the beginning of the Neolithic age became extinct as the society became more modern.



How did the eastern peoples arrive to Britain?



These eastern peoples arrived in Britain in little boats cut hollow from trees. They moved slowly up the rivers and the valleys till they settled.



What did they do then?



They moved slowly up the rivers and the valleys, digging for iron and making iron swords and spears with which they pushed back the men with bronze. They became proper farmers, turning the earth instead of only scratching it.



Did they make use of their sheep wool?



Yes, they did. Some of these settlers learned how to make clothes of wool. Raising sheep in numbers was known for long time ago. Naturally, the inhabitants tended to make use of its wool as the previously did with animals skin.



Did they stop using clay? Justify your answer.



No, they didn't. Rough pots and plates and bowls were also made. They were shaped with hand, not with the wheel that potters use today.



How did they move their carts while farming?



There were wooden carts pulled by oxen for farming and for taking things to the next village to sell. Other carts, pulled by horses, were used in war.



What is the name by which the people of the later Iron Age are known?



They were known as "The Celts".



What do you know about Stonehenge?



Write a brief account.



The Celts had put up great stones, several times their own height, to form circles. They used these stone circles, which were without roofs, as temples in which to pray to the sun and stars. One of these stone circles can still be seen today. It is called Stonehenge.



The remains of this temple are still surviving, and people come from all over the world to visit it. Recently, the remains were chosen to be one of the new world wonders.



When did the Romans come to Britain?



The Romans came to Britain during the spring of AD 43



Why did they come?



They came as invaders and they attacked the country with force.



What did they bring with them?



They brought a great civilization and an unmatchable technology to Britain.



Can you give examples of Roman weapons that surpassed the Celtic ones and formed their military force?



The Roman weapons were far better than the Celtic ones.



Besides the swords and the spears,



the Romans introduced machines to throw missiles like the Manu ballista and the Onager.



The Roman Armour ملابس واقية للمحاربين was also superior as it was made of iron plates that would stop anything.



The Romans brought prefabricated معدة كقطع يتم تركيبها لا حقا forts الحصن and they reconstructed بنى من جديد them on the British Isles.



How did the Romans move their army force across the hills and mountains of Britain?



They moved their army force quickly through tremendous ضخم roads. These roads go in straight lines for miles over the rolling hills. The Romans managed to build their roads in the right direction by using the groma.



The Romans were smart and intelligent. How did they send messages to distant areas?



The Romans had clever signaling systems. First, they invented the two groups of five signal flags which are similar to the telegraph system that was invented later. Second, they had a coded system that included a dozen of fixed messages written in a code book. The book was used with a water clock that both sender and receiver had.



Was the Roman technology entirely concerned with military action? Justify your answer.



The Roman technology was not entirely concerned with military force. They brought with them a whole way of life which include food and bathing customs.



Were the Britons happy about this?



Certainly they were glad to be introduced to a new, modern and luxurious style of life.



Explain the difference between the Celts and the Romans in taking their daily meal?



Celtic cooking had probably been a one-pot affair, such as a mess to be shared by the household, but the Romans introduced the three-course meal.



Why were the Romans keen on bathing?



The Romans were keen on bathing, but bathing was for pleasure and recreation, rather than for keeping clean.



What did they use?



To clean off the dirt they went through a hot room in the baths, like a sauna or a Turkish bath, and then rubbed oil on their skin, and scraped off the mucky mixture of oil, sweat, and dirt, using a curved metal scraper called a strigil.



Give examples of Roman wheels.



The Romans invented the Waterwheel and it was used to pump up water out of the earth. They also invented the Odometer to measure the distance traveled along a road. It is sometimes engaged to a cogwheel and a calculus.



1- The Roman armies withdrew from Britain. (Two Reasons)



The Roman armies withdrew from Britain early in the fifth century because they were needed back home to defend the crumbling centre of the Empire. Britain was considered a far outpost of little value.



2-One became a slave in the Dark Ages.



One could have the bad luck to be born a slave, of course. Beyond that, war was the most frequent source of slaves. Many conquered Celtic Britons would have become slaves. People could also become slaves if they were unable to pay a fine. In some cases a family would sell a child into slavery in time of famine to ensure the child's survival.



3-Slavery was not necessarily a lifetime sentence.



Slavery was not necessarily a lifetime sentence, however. A slave could be ransomed by his or her relatives or granted freedom in an owner's will. If a person became a slave because they were unable to pay a debt, they might be freed when the value of their labour reached the value of the original debt.



4-Early Saxon pottery saw a return to pre-roman technology.



Early Saxon pottery sees a return to pre-Roman technology, in that the potters' wheel is largely abandoned in favour of hand building techniques and the kiln seems to give way to open firing.



People tend to make pots for their own use, the low density of population making large scale manufacture of potter uneconomic.  When only a few pots are required every few weeks it is not viable to keep, or learn to use, a wheel.



5-A"Great Army" of Danish fighters came after thirty years of Danish raids.



 Thirty years of Danish raids on the east coast of England preceded the arrival, in 865, of a 'Great Army' equipped for conquest rather than quick booty. The Danish invaders now consolidated each year's gains by establishing a secure base from which they could continue a campaign of harassment - which invariably ended with the settled English buying peace from their footloose tormentors.



6- The Anglo-Saxon king Alfred was accorded the title "The Great".



There is a valid basis for king Alfred's heroic status. He is the first Anglo-Saxon ruler to be accepted as something akin to a national leader. The English saw him as such in those regions resisting Danish domination. With good cause he was the only king of England to be accorded the title 'the Great'. His authority derived from his successes against the



http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?gtrack=pthc&ParagraphID=ehxDanes. His kingly virtues can also be seen, with hindsight, in his encouragement of learning. But his central achievement is the quarter-century of struggle which followed his victory over the Danes at






One of his first acts was to establish the beginnings of an English fleet. The Danes drew much of their strength from their swift Viking



http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?gtrack=pthc&ParagraphID=etplong ships. It made sense for the Anglo-Saxon islanders to reply in kind. By 875 Alfred could claim a small naval victory which was nevertheless a significant beginning.



7-An important act was to establish the beginnings of an English fleet.



One of his first acts was to establish the beginnings of an English fleet. The Danes drew much of their strength from their swift Viking



http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?gtrack=pthc&ParagraphID=etplong ships. It made sense for the Anglo-Saxon islanders to reply in kind. By 875 Alfred could claim a small naval victory which was nevertheless a significant beginning.



8-Horses and oxen were raised in great numbers.



Horses and oxen were raised for heavy farm labour and transportation, though the stirrup had yet to make an appearance from the Far East.



1- The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle



Most of the information we have about the Anglo-Saxons comes from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a year-by-year account of all the major events of the time. It is worth noticing that this account was ordered by king Alfred The Great. Among other things it describes the rise and fall of the bishops and kings and the important battles of the period. It begins with the story of Hengist and Horsa in AD 449.



King Alfred The Great 2-



In popular tradition the story of England, as opposed to Britain, begins with Alfred. And there is a valid basis for this heroic status. He is the first Anglo-Saxon ruler to be accepted as something akin to a national leader. The English saw him as such in those regions resisting Danish domination. With good cause he was the only king of England to be accorded the title 'the Great'.



His authority derived from his successes against the



http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?gtrack=pthc&ParagraphID=ehxDanes. His kingly virtues can also be seen, with hindsight, in his encouragement of learning. But his central achievement is the quarter-century of struggle which followed his victory over the Danes at






In that same year, 871, Alfred's elder brother died and he became the king of



http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?gtrack=pthc&ParagraphID=erbWessex. One of his first acts was to establish the beginnings of an English fleet. The Danes drew much of their strength from their swift Viking



http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?gtrack=pthc&ParagraphID=etplong ships. It made sense for the Anglo-Saxon islanders to reply in kind. By 875 Alfred could claim a small naval victory which was nevertheless a significant beginning. Going to sea with his new fleet, he held his own against seven Danish ships and even captured one of them.



On land he had similar successes, defeating Danish armies and forced them to agree to leave Wessex in peace. But the Danes regularly broke their word.



In 878 a surprise Danish attack pushed Alfred west into the Somerset marshes. From a single fort at Athelney he organized local resistance. This was the lowest ebb of the English cause, the nearest that the Danes came to conquering Wessex and establishing their rule over the whole of England.



Within a few months Alfred was strong enough to move east again and defeat the Danes at Edington in Wiltshire. The conclusion of this campaign was a two-week siege of Guthrum, the Danish king of East Anglia, who was encircled in his encampment. Guthrum secured his freedom by promising (once again) to leave Wessex. More significantly, he also agreed to be baptized a Christian.



The ceremony of baptism took place on the river Parrett, with Alfred in the role of sponsor of the new convert. Then the two Christian kings went together to Wedmore (the year is still 878), where they spent twelve days in ceremony and feasting and in the agreement of a treaty which finally preserved Wessex from Danish intrusion.



A Danish invasion of Kent in 885 gave Alfred the pretext for expansion eastwards. He drove back the invaders, and in 886 occupied London. This success led to a new treaty with Guthrum. He and Alfred agreed a basis for coexistence between Anglo-Saxons in the south and west and



http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?gtrack=pthc&ParagraphID=ehxDanes in the north and east of the country - the region which became known as Danelaw.



3- The difference between the Roman and the Anglo-Saxon pottery.



Early Saxon pottery sees a return to pre-Roman technology, in that the potters' wheel is largely abandoned in favour of hand building techniques and the kiln seems to give way to open firing.



People tend to make pots for their own use, the low density of population making large scale manufacture of potter uneconomic.  When only a few pots are required every few weeks it is not viable to keep, or learn to use, a wheel.  It is only in the later Saxon period with the growth of the monasteries, with the settlements that accompany them that industrial pottery production starts to make a come-back.



4- The coexistence between the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes on the British Isles.



Thirty years of Danish raids on the east coast of England preceded the arrival, in 865, of a 'Great Army' equipped for conquest rather than quick booty. The Danish invaders now consolidated each year's gains by establishing a secure base from which they could continue a campaign of harassment - which invariably ended with the settled English buying peace from their footloose tormentors. By now the kings of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia made terms with the invaders. Next in line was Wessex.



In 870 the Danes advanced into Wessex. Wessex, like the other English kingdoms, made peace with the Danes - who withdrew to winter in London. The Wessex men were commanded that day by a 23-year-old prince of their ruling family - Alfred, brother of the king of Wessex.



Going to sea with his new fleet, he held his own against seven Danish ships and even captured one of them.



On land he had similar successes, defeating Danish armies and forced them to agree to leave Wessex in peace. But the Danes regularly broke their word.



In 878 a surprise Danish attack pushed Alfred west into the Somerset marshes. From a single fort at Athelney he organized local resistance. This was the lowest ebb of the English cause, the nearest that the Danes came to conquering Wessex and establishing their rule over the whole of England.



Within a few months Alfred was strong enough to move east again and defeat the Danes at Edington in Wiltshire. The conclusion of this campaign was a two-week siege of Guthrum, the Danish king of East Anglia, who was encircled in his encampment. Guthrum secured his freedom by promising (once again) to leave Wessex. More significantly, he also agreed to be baptized a Christian.



The ceremony of baptism took place on the river Parrett, with Alfred in the role of sponsor of the new convert. Then the two Christian kings went together to Wedmore (the year is still 878), where they spent twelve days in ceremony and feasting and in the agreement of a treaty which finally preserved Wessex from Danish intrusion.



A Danish invasion of Kent in 885 gave Alfred the pretext for expansion eastwards. He drove back the invaders, and in 886 occupied London. This success led to a new treaty with Guthrum. He and Alfred agreed a basis for coexistence between Anglo-Saxons in the south and west and



http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?gtrack=pthc&ParagraphID=ehxDanes in the north and east of the country - the region which became known as Danelaw.



1-Some foreign coins came to the British Isles.



Some foreign coins entered the region as a result of trading contacts both with Western Europe and the Islamic world to the east. However, except in major trading centres such as Hedeby and Ribe, in Denmark, the idea of coinage as such was unfamiliar



2-It was possible to have a precise system of trade and exchange even without a regular coinage.



Traders carried small scales which could measure weight very accurately, so it was possible to have a very precise system of trade and exchange even without a regular coinage.



3-Both in England and on the Continent, native rulers regularly paid the Viking raiders.



Both in England and on the Continent, native rulers regularly paid Viking raiders to leave them in peace.



The idea of 'Dane geld'(a land tax paid by landholders to the crown in late Anglo-Saxon and Norman times) is particularly associated today with the reign of Ethelred II (978-1016), whose policy of paying off the Vikings rather than fighting them was famously unsuccessful, and led to the conquest of England by Svein Forkbeard and Cnut. Such payments were also common in the ninth century, and both Anglo-Saxon and Frankish chronicles are full of references to rulers 'making peace' with the raiders. 'Making peace' was a polite expression for 'paying them to go away', and could involve large sums, such as the 7,000 pounds paid by the Frankish ruler Charles the Bald in 845.



Even Alfred the Great, more famous for his military resistance, was forced to 'make peace' on occasion. A particular feature of late ninth-century England is the existence of small lead weights, with Anglo-Saxon coins set into the top. These were probably used by the Vikings to weigh out payments in coinage.



4-Adopting coinage.



The idea of coinage was not a difficult one to grasp, and once the Viking raiders began to settle in England in the late ninth century, they began to issue coins of their own. Today this might seem an obvious thing to do, because we are used to dealing with coins on a regular basis. However, even a single silver penny (the only common denomination in the period) was a valuable item, and poorer people probably never handled coinage at all. Coins might be very slightly more convenient than some other forms of silver, but payments continued to be primarily based on the total weight and quality of the silver.



The reasons for adopting coinage were probably political and cultural as much as economic. Like many 'barbarian' invaders, the Vikings looked at the more 'civilised' peoples they had invaded, and wanted to be like them. Issuing coins was one of the established rights associated with Christian kingship in Europe in the early Middle Ages. The Anglo-Saxons themselves had adopted coinage as soon as they converted to Christianity, and the Vikings did just the same.



Most of the early Viking coin types were imitations of more established coinage. This



is fairly typical of societies that adopt the idea



of coinage from their neighbours.



5-The Vikings took their families with them when they moved from Scandinavia.



It is worth notice that the Vikings weren't just raiders, but farmers, traders and settlers - and they took their families with them when they moved from Scandinavia.



The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle notes that a Viking army operating in the years 892-5 was accompanied by women and children, who had to be put in a place of safety while the army fought and harried. But this army arrived in England after raiding on the continent and at least some of the women may have come from there.



6-The Viking women were not dressed alike.



Accounts for the divine origin of the three main social classes are so obvious. They also give us a snapshot of daily life in the Viking Age. The woman of the slave-class wears 'old-fashioned clothes' and serves bread that is 'heavy, thick, packed with bran... in the middle of a trencher', with 'broth in a basin'. The woman of the yeoman class wears a cap and a blouse, has a kerchief around her neck and 'brooches at her shoulders', and is busy with her spindle, 'ready for weaving'. The aristocratic woman is just busy preening herself: she wears a blouse of smooth linen, a spreading skirt with a blue bodice, a tall headdress and appropriate jewellery, and has very white skin. She serves silver dishes of pork and poultry on a white linen cloth, washed down with wine.



7-The Scandinavian breakfast was discouraging.



For breakfast the farmer helps himself to some of yesterday's left-over stew. It has been left in an iron cauldron. The stew itself also looks rather scary; a thin crust of fat has formed over a brown liquid which is made up of boiled lamb bones, beans, peas, carrots and turnips. The farmer breaks off a hunk of bread to dip into the stew. A rather stale crusty flat loaf, this bread was baked last week.



8- The Viking pagan graves are particularly useful to archaeologists.



Pagan graves are particularly useful because the bodies were fully dressed and accompanied by personal belongings, some of which indicate important activities of the living. Pagan graves provide plentiful archaeological evidence for early Scandinavian settlement in England and Scotland, and for female settlers.

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1-The Bullion Economy



A bullion economy, is a system in which the weight and the purity of the precious metal are what is important, not what form the metal takes. Far and away the most common metal in the economy was silver, although gold was also used. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots, as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments. Large pieces of jewellery were often chopped up into smaller pieces known as 'hack-silver' to make up the exact weight of silver required. Imported coins and fragments of coins were also used for the same purpose. Traders carried small scales which could measure weight very accurately, so it was possible to have a very precise system of trade and exchange even without a regular coinage.



2-The Dane Geld



The idea of 'Dane geld'(a land tax paid by landholders to the crown in late Anglo-Saxon and Norman times) is particularly associated today with the reign of Ethelred II (978-1016), whose policy of paying off the Vikings rather than fighting them was famously unsuccessful, and led to the conquest of England by Svein Forkbeard and Cnut. Such payments were also common in the ninth century, and both Anglo-Saxon and Frankish chronicles are full of references to rulers 'making peace' with the raiders. 'Making peace' was a polite expression for 'paying them to go away', and could involve large sums, such as the 7,000 pounds paid by the Frankish ruler Charles the Bald in 845.



Even Alfred the Great, more famous for his military resistance, was forced to 'make peace' on occasion. A particular feature of late ninth-century England is the existence of small lead weights, with Anglo-Saxon coins set into the top. These were probably used by the Vikings to weigh out payments in coinage.



3-The link between issuing coins and Christian kingship.



Issuing coins was one of the established rights associated with Christian kingship in Europe in the early Middle Ages. The Anglo-Saxons themselves had adopted coinage as soon as they converted to Christianity, and the Vikings did just the same.



Most of the early Viking coin types were imitations of more established coinage. This



is fairly typical of societies that adopt the idea



of coinage from their neighbours.



The link between issuing coins and Christian kingship is very clear in the coinage of Viking rulers in the British Isles. Some of the St Peter pennies carry the hammer of the pagan god Thor alongside the name of St Peter.



It is also very noticeable that the coins of the Danelaw carry very Christian symbols. Many have the Christian cross, and some carry Christian inscriptions such as DOMINUS DEUS REX (Lord God and King) or MIRABILIA FECIT (He has done marvellous things).



Coins were also issued in the name of St Peter at York, and St Martin at Lincoln. The designs were not all exclusively Christian, however, which suggests some religious toleration. A coin type attributed to Olaf Guthfrithsson of York (939-41) shows a bird that has often been identified as one of Odin's ravens. It could equally well be interpreted as an eagle, symbol of St John the Evangelist, and the image may have been chosen deliberately to appeal to Christian and pagan alike.



4-The Viking food preservation techniques.



With n r freezers the Viking family has to take special measures to stop their food going bad. Meat and fish can be smoked or rubbed with salt. Fruit can be dried; grains are made into bread or ale. Dairy produce such as milk is made into cheese. Cooking the meat will make it last a little longer, making sausages will make it last longer still.



Moreover, Bad weather may have meant they had to rely more on stored food.



5-The Viking food and beverage tools.



The Vikings had bowls and plates very similar to our own, but made more often from wood rather than pottery. They ate with a sharp pointed knife, which served as both a knife and a fork (the latter would not be invented for another century). Spoons were made from wood, horn or animal bone. They were often carved with delicate patterns of interlaced knot work and the heads of fabulous beasts. Drink was taken in horns, similarly decorated and sometimes with metal tips and rims.



6-The Vikings styles of settlement.



There were remarkable differences in the way that the newcomers lived. There is a contrast between the essentially rural pattern of Norwegian settlement in Scotland, with its individual farms and family estates, and the urban development of Dublin and later Waterford in Ireland. There the Vikings established trading centres on the coastal fringe of a rural hinterland that was little affected by Scandinavian activities.



York was the northernmost of the Viking towns of England, and it seems possible that the Viking takeover of rural estates may have stimulated urban growth in the sense that some of the dispossessed English farmers sought a new life in trade or industry in towns.



Timber buildings set in plots of equal size suggest a degree of town planning, while the debris from workshops tells of urban industries. Timber buildings set in plots of equal size suggest a degree of town planning, while the debris from workshops tells of urban industries such as leather-working, bone comb-making, textiles and metalworking. Crucial to urban development is the discovery of coin-making dies, for the Viking economy had previously been based not on currency but on silver bullion and the exchange of goods.



Towns were not a Viking invention, and the growth of towns such as York depended on their existing foundations. This is perhaps why towns did not develop in Scandinavian Scotland before the 12th century because there had been no previous urban development.

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جزاك الله خيرا على الملخصات المفيده أخ حمدي


 وإن شاء الله يستمر التواصل والتفاعل بين جميع الطلبه في تيرم ثاني

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