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نادي جامعة القاهرة للتعليم المفتوح
مرمروتي

قطع الكمبيرهنشن متجدد

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مررررراحب عليكم flower
ديه يا جماااعة قطعتين الكمبيرهنشن اللي احنا اخدناهم في ترم مارس عشان لو حد محتاج يعرف وصلنا لفين في الكمبيرهنشن
ده اللي انا عرفته اننا وصلنا ليه قطعيتن وحدة عند sleep
,التانية عن Alfred No
bel

القطعة الاولي عن الفريد نوبل
[color=black]
I) Read the following passage and answer the questions below:





Alfred Nobel, the great Swedish inventor and industrialist, was a man of contrasts. He was the son of a bankrupt, but he became a millionaire; a scientist with a love for literature; an industrialist who managed to remain an idealist. He made a fortune but lived a simple life, and although he was cheerful in company, he was often sad in private. A lover of mankind, he never had a wife or a family to love him; a patriotic son of his native land, he died alone on foreign soil. He invented a new explosive, dynamite, to improve the peacetime industries of mining and road building, but he saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure people. During his useful life, he often felt that he was useless. World-famous for his inventions, he was never personally well-known, for throughout his life, he avoided publicity, but since his death, his name has brought fame and glory to others.

In fact, Nobel's main concern was never with making money, or even with making scientific discoveries. He was always searching for a meaning to life, and, from his youth, he had taken a serious interest in literature and philosophy. Perhaps because he could not find ordinary human love, he came to care deeply about the whole of mankind. He was always generous to the poor. His greatest wish was to see an end to wars and, thus, peace between nations. He spent much time and money working for this cause until his death in Italy in 1896. His famous will, in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding achievements in physics, medicine, literature, and peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals.



Vocabulary







Swedish

سويدي

Inventor

مخترع

Industrialist

رجل صناعة

Contrasts

متناقضات

Bankrupt

مفلس

Millionaire

مليونير

Scientist

عالم

Literature

الأدب

Managed

نجح

Remain

بقى

Idealist

مثالى

Fortune

ثروة

Simple

بسيط

Cheerful

مرح

Company

الصحبة

Sad

حزين

private

عزلة

Mankind

الجنس البشرى

Patriotic

وطنى

Native land

الوطن الأم

Foreign

أجنبى

Soil

تراب

Invented

اخترع

Explosive

متفجرات

Dynamite

الديناميت

Improve

يحسن/ يطور

Peacetime

وقت السلم

Industries

صناعات

Mining

التعدين

Road building

بناء / شق الطرق

Weapon

سلاح

Injure

يصيب

Useless

بلا فائدة

Famous

مشهور

Well-known

معروف

Throughout

علي مدي / طوال

Avoided

تجنب

Publicity

الدعاية

Fame

الشهرة

Glory

المجد

Main

أساسى / رئيسى

Concern

انشغال

Discoveries

اكتشافات

Youth

شباب

Serious

جاد

Interest

اهتمام

Philosophy

فلسفة

Care

عناية

Deeply

بعمق

Generous

كريم

Wish

أمنية

Nations

الأمم

Cause

قضية

Will

وصية

Provide

يقدم

Prizes

جوائز

Outstanding

بارز/ مميز

Physics

الفيزياء

Chemistry

الكيمياء

Medicine

الطب

Memorial

تذكار

Ideals

مثاليات





Questions



1- What is the main idea of the first paragraph?

The main idea of the first paragraph is that Alfred Nobel was a man of contrasts.



2- What nationality was Alfred Nobel?

Alfred Nobel was Swedish.

3- Why was Nobel considered يعتبر3- a man of many contrasts?

Nobel was considered a man of many contrasts because his life and character contained احتوت many contradictions. متناقضات For example, he became a millionaire although his father was a bankrupt. Also, he was a scientist who loved literature. He was cheerful with others, but sad alone.

4- What did Nobel invent?

He invented a new explosive, dynamite.

5- What was this invention meant to improve?

It was meant to improve the peacetime industries of mining and road building.

6- What was it actually used for?

It was actually used as weapon of war to kill and injure people.

7- What is the main idea of the second paragraph?

The main idea of the second paragraph is Nobel's character and interests.

8- What was Nobel always searching for?

He was always searching for a meaning to life.

9- What was he seriously interested in since his youth?

Since his youth, he was seriously interested in literature and philosophy.

10- What was Nobel's greatest wish?

His greatest wish was to see an end to wars and, thus, peace between countries.



11- When did Nobel die?

Nobel died in 1896.

12- How has Nobel's name brought fame and glory to others after his death?

After his death, name brought fame and glory to others who were awarded منحوا Nobel Prizes.

13- Name two Egyptian figures شخصيتين who were awarded Nobel Prizes.

Among those who were awarded Nobel Prizes were Naguib Mahfouz, Ahmed Zoweil, and President Anwar El Sadat.

14- Use each of the following words in a sentence of your own.

inventors – fame – concern – outstanding

٭Inventors help to improve our life and make it easier.

٭Most artists are anxious for fame.

٭Her concern for others has won her the love of everyone around her.

٭Shakespeare was an outstanding writer.

Revision

I) Read the following passage and answer the questions below:

The Geneva Conventions comprise rules that apply in times of armed conflict. They seek to protect people who are not or are no longer taking part in war: for example, wounded or sick fighters, prisoners of war, civilians, medical and religious personnel. The Geneva Conventions consist of four treaties and three additional protocols that set the standards in international law for humanitarian treatment of the victims of war. However, the term Geneva Conventions refers to the agreements of 1949, negotiated after of World War II, that include articles defining the basic rights of those captured during a military conflict, means of providing protection for the wounded, and for civilians in and around a war zone. The treaties of 1949 have been ratified, in whole or with reservations, by 194 countries.

In fact, this idea goes back to the nineteenth century. In 1862, Henry Dunant published his book, ''Memoirs de Solferino'' ("Memories of Solferino"), on the horrors of war. Dunant's wartime experiences inspired him to propose a permanent relief agency for humanitarian aid in times of war, and a government treaty to guarantee the neutrality of the agency and allowing it to provide aid in a war zone. The former proposal led to the establishment of the Red Cross. The latter led to the First Geneva Convention. For both of these accomplishments, Henry Dunant was awarded the first Nobel Peace Prize in 1901.

However, not all violations of these treaties are treated equally. The most serious crimes are termed grave breaches, and provide a legal definition of a war crime. Grave breaches of the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions (related to the protection of prisoners of war and civilians, respectively) include the following acts, if committed against a person protected by the convention: willful killing, torture or inhumane treatment, such as exposing a person to biological experiments causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, compelling one to serve in the forces of a hostile power, and willfully depriving one of the right to a fair trial. Also, considered grave breaches of the Fourth Geneva Convention are taking of hostages, extensive destruction of property carried out unlawfully and not justified by military necessity, and the unlawful deportation, transfer, or confinement.

Although wars have changed since the Geneva Conventions of 1949, these conventions are still considered today the cornerstone of contemporary International Humanitarian Law. They protect fighters in battles, and they also protect civilians in the zone of war. These treaties have played an important role all recent international armed conflicts, including the War in Afghanistan (2001– present), the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the 2008 War in Georgia.

Vocabulary





Conventions

معاهدات

Comprise

يشمل / يتضمن

Rules

قواعد

Apply

يطبق

Armed

مسلح

Conflict

نزاع / صراع

Seek

تسعى

Protect

يحمى

No longer

لم يعد

Taking part

يشارك

Wounded

جريح

Sick

مريض

Fighters

مقاتلون

Prisoners of war

أسرى حرب

Civilians

مدنيون

Personnel

أفراد

Consist

يتكون من

Treaties

إتفاقيات

Additional

إضافى

Protocols

بروتوكولات

Set

تضع / تحدد

Standards

معايير

International law

القانون الدولى

Humanitarian

إنسانى

Treatment

معاملة

Victims

ضحايا

Term

مصطلح

Agreements

إتفاقيات

Negotiated

تفاوض

Include

يتضمن

Defining

يعرف

Basic

أساسى

Rights

حقوق

Captured

يقع في الأسر

Military

عسكرى

Means

وسيلة

Providing

يوفر

Zone

منطقة

Ratified

صادق على

Reservations

تحفظات

Goes back to

يعود إلى / يرجع إلى

Published

نشر

Memories

ذكريات

Solferino

سلفرينو ( بإيطاليا )

Horrors

فظائع

Wartime

وقت/ زمن الحرب

Experiences

تجارب / خبرات

Inspired

ألهم

Propose

يقترح

permanent

دائم

Relief

مساعدة

Agency

وكالة

Aid

مساعدة

Guarantee

يضمن

Neutrality

حياد

allowing

تسمح

Former

السابق

Proposal

إقتراح

Led

أدى / قاد إلى

Latter

اللاحق

Accomplishments

إنجازات

Awarded

منح

Violations

إنتهاكات

Serious

خطير

Grave

خطير

Breaches

إنتهاكات

Legal

قانونى

War crime

جرائم حرب

Related

مرتبط ب

Respectively

على الترتيب

Acts

أعمال

Committed

أرتكب

Willful

متعمد

Torture

تعذيب

Inhumane

لاإنسانى

Exposing

تعريض

Biological

بيولوجى

Experiments

تجارب

Causing

تحدث / تسبب

Suffering

معاناة

Injury

إصابة

Compelling

إرغام

Serve

يخدم

Forces

قوات

Hostile

معادى

Power

قوة

Depriving

حرمان

Right

حق

Fair

عادل

Trial

محاكمة

Considered

يعتبر

Hostages

رهائن

Extensive

واسع/ ممتد

Destruction

تدمير

Property

ممتلكات

Carried out

تنفذ

Unlawfully

غير قانونى

Justified

مبرر

Necessity

ضرورة

Deportation

إبعاد

Transfer

نقل

Confinement

إحتجاز

Cornerstone

حجر الزاوية

Contemporary

معاصر

Battles

معارك

Role

دور

Recent

حديث

Present

الحاضر

Invasion

غزو



Questions



1- What do the Geneva Conventions consist of?

The Geneva Conventions consist of four treaties and three additional protocols that set the standards in international law for humanitarian treatment of the victims of war.



2- What do the Geneva Conventions try to do?

These conventions try to protect people who are not or are no longer taking part in war: for example, wounded or sick fighters, prisoners of war, civilians, medical and religious personnel.



3- What does the term Geneva Conventions refer to?

It refers to the agreements of 1949, negotiated after of World War II, that include article defining the basic rights of those captured during a military conflict, means of providing protection for the wounded, and for civilians in and around a war zone.



4- How many countries ratified the treaties of 1949?

194 countries ratified the treaties of 1949.



5- How did Dunant's wartime experiences affect him?

6- His wartime experiences inspired him to propose a permanent relief agency for humanitarian aid in times of war, and a government treaty to guarantee the neutrality of the agency and allowing it to provide aid in a war zone.



6-How was Dunant rewarded كوفئ for his efforts?

Dunant was rewarded by receiving استلامthe first Nobel Peace Prize in 1901.

ج

7- Mention two examples of grave breaches that are considered war crimes.

War crimes include willful killing, torture or inhumane treatment of civilians or prisoners of war, such as exposing them to biological experiments causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, compelling them to serve in the forces of a hostile power, and willfully depriving them of the right to a fair trial.



8- Why are the Geneva Conventions still important today?

They are still important today because they help to protect fighters in battles, and they also protect civilians in the zone of war.



9- Mention two recent wars in which the Geneva Conventions played an important role.

The Geneva Conventions played an important role in the War in Afghanistan (2001– present), the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the 2008 War in Georgia.



10- Use each of the following words in a sentence of your own:

Prisoners of war – civilians – hostages – war crimes

ج

٭Prisoners of war should be treated humanely.

٭In wars, civilians as well as soldiers may get killed or injured.



٭Taking hostages is illegal.



٭Those who commit war crimes should be p
unished.
[/colour]

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القطعة الثانية
sleep
[b]Sleep is a natural body function during which we are relatively unconscious and the muscles that we normally control are relaxed. The result of sleep is refreshment of the nervous system (including the brain) and of the muscles. As we grow up, our bodies normally require less sleep. Infants require from 12 to 14 hours, while adults may require
from 6 to 8 hours.



When we have persistent difficulty in falling asleep, clock watching should be avoided. Sometimes, very slow and deep breathing can encourage sleep. It can be helpful to get out of bed and do a quiet activity that is relaxing. This might be reading or writing, for example. Remaining in bed while you cannot sleep is usually not helpful.

We can also promote better sleep on our own by changing our diets and by altering our lifestyles. People with difficult sleeping, "insomnia", should avoid caffeine. Caffeine is in coffee, and it is also a component of tea and cola drinks. Alcohol should also be avoided because it can disturb the last phases of sleep.

A light snack before bedtime sometimes can promote sleep. The reverse is also true: hunger has the effect of making sleep difficult. When we are having trouble sleeping at night, we should not take naps during the day. On the contrary, it can be beneficial to exercise regularly.

1- Define sleep.

Sleep is a natural body function. When we sleep, our muscles are relaxed and our bodies are relatively unconscious. Sleep makes us feel refreshed; this means that the nervous system (including the brain) and the muscles are refreshed.

2- What is the physical effect (i.e. the effect on the body) of sleep on man?

The physical effect of sleep on man is that one feels

refreshed; this means that the nervous system (including the

brain) and the muscles are refreshed and relaxed.

3- How many hours of sleep do infants need? How many hours of sleep do adults need?

Infants need from 12 to 14 hours of sleep, while adults need 6 to 8 hours of sleep each day.

4- According to the passage, what should people do in order to sleep well? (Mention 2 points only)

In order to sleep well, people should exercise regularly, and practise relaxing activities like reading and writing. Moreover, they should change their life styles to include better food diets, and avoid drinking caffeine drinks such as coffee and tea because these drinks affect sleep. People should also avoid alcohol because it disturbs sleep phases. Sometimes, taking a light snack before sleep helps one to sleep better. In addition, people should not take naps during the day because it stops people from sleeping well at night.

5- ?What is the medical term for "difficult sleeping

" The medical term for "difficult sleeping is "ins
omnia".

[/b]

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شكرا كتيرررررررررر
بس يا ريت باقي القطع ويكفي اسماءها لو هي موجوده في المحاضرات او التطبيقات او الكتاب

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شكرا كتيرررررررررر
بس يا ريت باقي القطع ويكفي اسماءها لو هي موجوده في المحاضرات او التطبيقات او الكتاب

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القطعتين ممتازة - وأحست حاجه عملتها الاخت أنها نزلت الكلمات vocabulary

وعلشان تبقى سهله



أحسنتي مرمر

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السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

انا جبتلكم 3 قطع من اللي موجودين في الملزمة صورتهم من الامتحانات


دي قطعة تمثال الحرية








السؤال 4- ?how was the statue of liberty carriedto the us

5- ?when was the statue of liberty officially accepted in new york


قطعة الفلانتين داي






قطعة Thanksgiving





اذا وجدت قطع اخرى هصورهلكم :flower:

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هي ممتازه - بس إزاي نسحبها على شكل ورق لو أمكن



وشكرا لك

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احفظ الصور على جهازك واطبعها

الشكر لله

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k.salem كتب:
هي ممتازه - بس إزاي نسحبها على شكل ورق لو أمكن



وشكرا لك


1-: ظبط الصوره على الشاشه

2-: أضغط على زر print screen

3-:قم بفتح برنامج paint

4-:اضغط على زر ctrl + v فى وقت واحد داخل برنامج paint

5-: قم بحفظ الصوره من البرنامج


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k.salem كتب:
بإذن الله اخي - شكرا لك وللاخت مريم




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او ممكن كليك يمين على الصورة وحفظ الصورة بإسم بس

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جزاكى الله خيرا يا مرمر
ربنا يكرمك يا مريم ويجزيكى كل خير
مجهود رائع

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العفو على ايه الشكر لله انا معملتش حاجة flower

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يا جماعة في حد ذاكر القطعة رقم 10 في الملزمة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟ هي بتتكلم عن معاهدات جينيف

في اسئلة مش عارفة اطلع اجابتها من القطعة السؤال رقم 7 و رقم 2

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لا مش ملزمة المحاضرات الملزمة اللي خدناها من الدكتورة مش عارفة هي مع حضرتك ولا لا

دول السؤالين
?what do the Geneva Conventions try to do

?mention two examples of grave breaches that are considered

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أهلا مريم - ليست معي يا مريم ولكن لا اعرف كيف احصل عليها لاني ما حضرت بالأسابيع الماضيه



كيف يمكن الحصول عليها بالمركز ؟

وشكرا

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k.salem كتب:
أهلا مريم - ليست معي يا مريم ولكن لا اعرف كيف احصل عليها لاني ما حضرت بالأسابيع الماضيه



كيف يمكن الحصول عليها بالمركز ؟

وشكرا


اهلا بحضرتك يوم الجمعة اللي جاية ان شاء الله هتلاقي الملزمة مع الطلبة لاننا بناخد منها في المحاضرة مش موجودة في المكتبة ولا في اي مكان غير مع الطلبة لان الدكتورة هي اللي عملاها وصورناها منها

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المحاضرة بالقاعه رقم 160



وثانيا ايه المحاضره

comrehension او ترجمة

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k.salem كتب:
المحاضرة بالقاعه رقم 160



وثانيا ايه المحاضره

comrehension او ترجمة



محاضرة الكالتشر الساعة 8 ل 9 ونص في المدرج رقم 363
محاصرة الكمبرهينشن الساعة 1 ل 2 ونص في المدرج رقم 160

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في الجمعه الجاية بعد بكره ألا يوجد مادة grammar



للدكتورة هدى عياد ؟

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لا الجرامر للدكتورة هدى عياد الجمعة اللي بعد اللي جاية الساعة 1 وعلى فكرة هي مش بتشرح حضرتلها محاضرة واحدة وقالتلنا انا مش هشرح والمحاضرات دي للي عنده سؤال فقط والشرح في الفيديوهات على صفحتكم

اتفضل اخي ده جدول ترم اول وتاني جيه معاه


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شكرا على التوضيح



شكرا على الجدول هو مفيد اكيد بكل حال

بس أتصدقي بان هذا الجدول المحاضرات فيه زي الألغاز كل مرة بلخبط في رقم القاعه ولانه رموزه تحتاج الى فك لغز في بعض الاحيان

ولما بشوفه عند البوابه اشوفه قرابه نص ساعه يدوب افهمه

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أقولك ليش



لأنه يجي دائما بطريقه معكوسه

فالمحاضرات تحتاج الى من يفهمه بطريقه صحيحه



التواريخ اللي على اليمين تكون مخصصه لمحاضرات على الشمال

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وفي بعض الأحيان يحصل تغيير في الموعد والقاعه

يعنى تكون المحاضرة اللي مسجله عند البوابه خلاف المحاضره اللي شغاله بالداخل

ويحصل تغيير كذلك في مكان القاعه يكون مكتوب 160 وهي شغاله في مكان اخر

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اه فعلا عندك حق بس عشان حضرتك مش بتحضر لكن احنا حفظنا خلاص المحاضرة دي فين والمحاضرة دي فين انا اول محاضرة للكالتشر دخلت مدرج غلط وفضلت قاعدة فيه ييجي 5 دقائق وبعد كدا شكيت فا قلت اسأل لاقتني قاعدة مع ترم تاني وبعد كدا طلعت مدرج تاني قلت هو ده فا دخلت وقعدت برضه شوية قلت اسأل احتياطي لاقتهم بيقولولي احنا ترم تامن فرحت طبعا قلت الله ده انا وصلت اهو وقربت اتخرج هههههههه بس حفظنا خلاص

مرة واحدة حصل تغيير في المواعيد روحنا المحاضرة الساعة 1 بعد ما حضرناها لاقيناهم بيقولوا مفيش محاضرات تانية المحاضرة التانية كانت الساعة 8 الصبح اتصدمنا طبعا لانهم غيروا الجدول نفس اليوم الصبح بس محصلش تغيير تاني الحمد الله
وعلى فكرة الجرامر بيبقى في الجامعة في كلية علوم مش في المبنى حضرته مرة واحدة تقريبا ولا 2

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عندي سؤال بخصوص كليه دار العلوم

هي بتكون داخل جامعه القاهره و فين بالضبط المحاضره



الخاصه بالدكتوره هدى عياد لأني مضطر اجلس بمصر أسبوع لانتظر المحاضره

لانهامهمه بالنسبه لي



وأشكرك جدا مريم على اهتمامك ومشاركاتك

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k.salem كتب:
عندي سؤال بخصوص كليه دار العلوم

هي بتكون داخل جامعه القاهره و فين بالضبط المحاضره



الخاصه بالدكتوره هدى عياد لأني مضطر اجلس بمصر أسبوع لانتظر المحاضره

لانهامهمه بالنسبه لي



وأشكرك جدا مريم على اهتمامك ومشاركاتك


اه جوة الجامعة يعني حضرتك بتخرج من المركز وتعدي الشارع الناحية التانية هتلاقي باب الجامعة بتدخل منه وتمشي يمين جنب السور على طول لحد ما تلاقي كلية دار علوم ولو سألت هيدلوك ولا شكر على واجب

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لو سمحتم حد بقول لى انهردة الصقحم بتاعة المركز مغلقة لىه

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لو سمحتم يا جماعة انا من الاسكندرية ولا احضر اى محاضرات كل مذكرتى من الصفحة الرءيسية على النت لو حد بيحضر يقول لى ايه الفرق

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NORnada كتب:
لو سمحتم يا جماعة انا من الاسكندرية ولا احضر اى محاضرات كل مذكرتى من الصفحة الرءيسية على النت لو حد بيحضر يقول لى ايه الفرق


مفيش فرق في المنهج بس الفرق في طريقة الشرح لان في دكاترة في الجامعة مش هما اللي بيشرحوا في الفيديوهات يعني مش كلهم بتفرق بس في طريقة الشرح مش اكتر والمنهج واحد

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طبعا يا نور ندى لايفوتك دروس الجامعه على التلفاز وفي كل البرامج تعرض على قناه جامعه القاهره للتعليم المفتوح



تطلع فيها كل الدروس حتى التيرم السادس



و في الموقع يوجد إخوه كثيرون يحطون مذاكراتهم وملاحظاتهم ويوجد لينكات أيضا محفوظه فيها كل خير



وكل ماينفع - بس تصفحي في الموقع بطول نفس



وسوف تجدين كل ماينفعك



وربنا معاك دائما

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شكرااا ليكي جدا ميريم علي مجهودك الراائع بس عايزة اسالك سوال كده بس هما القطع الخمسة دول اللي نذاكرهم ؟؟
تسلمي علي مجهوداتك

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بصي احنا خدنا 5 او 6 قطع تقريبا

الفريد والنوم وفلانتين والحروف الهجائية متهيألي في 2 كمان مش فاكرة كانوا ايه
على العموم ذاكري ال11 قطعة لان في قطعة ملغية اللي هي معاهدة جينيف

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