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نادي جامعة القاهرة للتعليم المفتوح
lole adel

هام جدا القطع المحدده في امتحان ترجمه 3

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هام وعاجل قطع الترجمة التى سيأتى منها الامتحان .. وسيأتى الامتحان إما من جزء من أى قطعة أو سيأتى من أجزاء مختلفة من كل القطع بما يوازى فقرتين .. والقطع من الكتاب صفحات 30 - 44 - 55 - 73 - 87 .. كما أن هناك سؤال خاص بالاختصارات من صفحتى 20 و21 ... وجارى متابعة باقى المهم من المادة ... والقطع الخمس التى سياتى منها الامتحان ليست بكاملها وإنما كما حددها الدكتور وهى :-

القطعة اﻷولى
Emerging Media Reshape Global Society
Dale Peskin and Andrew Nachison 
The relationship between traditional media and the public is changing, a trend these information professionals call "We Media". This emergent journalistic process allows the Web's social network to produce, analyze, and disseminate news and information to technologically interconnected publics unbounded by geography. 
Innovation in information technologies has thrust humankind into an era of democratic media in which almost everyone can have immediate access to news and information, and become creators and contributors in the journalistic enterprise. As a result, news now moves in unconventional ways with unpredictable consequences. 
How does a shared experience of digital media affect what we know and how we know it? How do the creators and keepers of stories behave when anyone can be a journalist, a publisher, or an archivist? What are the implications for our global society? 
These questions are at the heart of "We Media," a phrase The Media Centers coined years ago to describe the emerging phenomenon of global access to content from infinite sources, 
content that empowers participation and civic engagement in the news and information that affect society. 
Google is one expression. The Internet search engine, whose mission is no less than to organize the world's information, enables individuals to take control of their worlds. They become empowered to seek and find information that reflects their personal preferences and take action. Individual access to news and information is no longer determined by powerful institutions with the authority or wealth to dominate distribution. 
Blogs are another expression. These online journals create and connect individuals and their ideas throughout the world. Sites such as Global Voices [http://www.globalvoicesonline.org] aggregate stories and perspectives from everyday people: citizen storytellers with authentic voices from unique circumstances and cultures. So compelling is their power that Internet sites such as [url=http://l.( ممنوع وضع روابط الفيس بوك ).com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.technorati.com%2F&h=tAQFPjNHa&enc=AZNbQCNMxLsIk1_xPxUsvmGmCbJLz7j7WG6F0svpPfHIITLS4o5IOqweqC1K_MJ3dRk58Gi9hIx6ACw317qKF2Ur2yfMwuc0sCxawc7W8ymGrrpeI35fzBgifovnKuXl89c9c8QbfSli96Uftz6Bp3L-&s=1]http://www.technorati.com[/url] have been created to track more than 25 million blogs—about one-fourth of the e-journals in the blogosphere.

القطعة الثانية
Newspapers Recreate Their Medium
Brian L. Steffens
Newspapers large and small have a long history of adapting to technological and market change. Small-town and community newspapers are flourishing in a new technological age that allows them to provide coverage of local events with detail and delivery speed that they've never had before. In the 21st century, newspapers have become chameleons, adapting with the changing environment. That's the way it's always been: from sheet-fed to rotary presses, linotype machines to desktop publishing, black and white to color, and now paper to electrons. 
Newspapers continue to offer unique-value propositions that ensure their long-term future even as they change to encompass new forms of presentation and distribution. Newspapers remain the only medium that is primarily news; information that is usually verifiable, accurate, fair and in search of truth. 
Radio is primarily a music and talk medium. Television is dominated by entertainment. The Internet is a search medium, offering access to a wide range of information with no assurances about the quality or veracity of content. 
Local, community newspapers offer something that readers prize—local news. 
Television stations and large-city dailies serve regional audiences spanning large cities, sprawling suburbs, and communities with total populations numbering in the millions. Cable channels and the Internet serve national or international audiences. None have the staff, time, space or pages to cover truly local, neighborhood news in a comprehensive and consistent way. They are limited to covering the bigger stories, the controversies, not day-to-day life that is the hallmark of community newspapers, including local government, schools, local health care and medical resources, neighborhood sports, social events, service clubs, and church activities. 
This explains why the number of American dailies, and subscribers to those papers, has declined, while the number of community, nondaily newspapers has grown from about 5,500 to more than 7,000. Readership of the nondailies has almost tripled, to nearly 70 million every week. 
New technologies pose challenges to the traditional newspaper business—a new learning curve and untested business models—but these technologies also bring new capabilities and opportunities to local news organizations.

القطعة الثالثة
Broadcasters Getting Online, Staying On Air
Michael Murrie
Zooming technological advancement has forced broadcasters to adjust to wave after wave of change. The industry has transformed nearly every aspect of their operations—how broadcasters deliver programming and how they produce it, and what the audience wants and when they want it. 
American broadcasting glories in its tales of survival and success. 
Radio survived the challenge of television a half century ago by becoming a portable medium and shifting from an emphasis on drama to music for the commuter. AM radio survived the rise of FM radio by developing news and provocative discussion programming. 
Television became the national pastime each evening for a half century. Americans gathered to watch favorite characters, sports, and news coverage of historic events. Television remains Americans' primary source of news and the advertising medium that best catches their attention. 
Nowadays, however, changes in technology, audience behavior, and business models shake traditional broadcasting again and again. 
The Old Competitors: Despite high-quality music CDs, radio became more profitable than ever in the 1990s after changes in U.S. government regulations allowed consolidation and simultaneous broadcasting of the same programming by multiple stations in a metropolitan area, as well as across many areas. The result, however, was often bland programming that lacked local content. 
The Federal Communications Commission licensed 13,450 radio stations in 2003, twice the number that was licensed in 1970. The United States is one of the few countries in the world where commercial radio, with 10,000 stations, dominates over government radio. 
Television met its first match when community antenna or cable systems began to import signals from other stations and later added specialized channels such as CNN and MTV. The small, individual franchises began to consolidate into groups as cable moved into metropolitan areas in the 1980s. Television stations tried to hold their audiences by insisting that federal regulations require the cable systems to carry local stations. 
More competition came in the 1990s from direct broadcast satellite, the first service with digital signals. Cable, too, launched digital services, multiplying the number of channels from a few dozen to hundreds. 
Over time, especially as ownership rules relaxed, broadcasters coped with the competition by acquiring interests in the competition and programming outlets. Now, of the top five U.S. media conglomerates, all own cable television channels and produce at least some kinds of television programs, four own cable distribution systems, four own broadcast television networks and stations, three produce motion pictures, and two own hundreds of radio stations. The interrelationships among these and other top media conglomerates are complex and difficult to follow. 
Meanwhile, both radio and television faced audiences that could bypass the broadcast schedule to record programs on audio or videocassettes and replay them at other times. For decades the process was too clumsy and complicated to be an important factor, until the introduction of TiVo (a digital video recording set-top device for personal television) and similar devices that incorporated program schedules, simplified recording, and eliminated commercials. It was the beginning of a decline in the importance of programming schedules and the beginning of a trend toward viewer control.

القطعة الرابعة
Bloggers Breaking Ground in Communication
Dan Gillmor
Software technology that allows writers to easily post their own essays on the World Wide Web has challenged the traditional role of media organizations as gatekeepers to a mass audience. At a steadily increasing pace over the last several years, ordinary citizens have made themselves into reporters and commentators on the social scene. They have made a remarkably rapid ascent onto their own platform in the realm of social and political debate. 
In late 2002, one of the most powerful members of the United States Congress got a lesson in the power of new media. At a birthday party for a colleague, Senator Trent Lott, a Republican from the state of Mississippi, sounded nostalgic for an ugly part of America's past, when racial segregation was official policy in much of the land. The statement drew little notice from the mass media. 
But some writers of the then-nascent Internet journals called weblogs, or blogs for short, were not so willing to let it go. From the political left and right, the bloggers, as these writers have come to be known, expressed outrage. Some of their ire was directed at the media for its inattention, and after a few days of the bloggers' attacks, major media organizations decided to cover the story. A few days after that, Lott's support among his colleagues 
dwindled and he ultimately stepped down from his Senate Republican leadership post. 
The incident was an early warning of sorts, for politicians, public figures of all kinds, and people in the media. It signaled the accelerating evolution of communications. Blogs were coming into their own, and they have become more and more of a force. 
What are blogs, exactly? There's no single definition, but most have at least three things in common. They are typically composed of short essays, also called postings. The postings are shown in reverse chronological order —that is, most recent items at the top. And they have hyperlinks pointing to other Web pages. 
Blogs are a conversational medium. Many of the best blogs let readers post comments, and bloggers are fond of pointing at each others' work to highlight and discuss it. 
They are also conversational because the best blogs are written with a distinctly human voice. We can contrast this with the typical newspaper article, which feels as though it was written according to a formula and by a committee, not a person. The blog's very humanity is a vital boost to the form. 
Blogs should also be understood in their wider context, as a proxy for the many different ways that average Internet users are now able to publish (in a variety of formats, including audio and video) their own works online. This is part of the democratization of media, both in creation and distribution. The tools we use to 
create digital content are increasingly powerful but decreasingly expensive. And we can show our work to a potentially global audience. There is no analog in human history for this development. 
According to the Pew Internet Project, a nonprofit organization researching the Internet's impact on various aspects of American life, blog reading has risen along with blog creation. More than a quarter of the U.S. population has read a blog and, while the numbers flattened somewhat during 2005, mass-media coverage has given blogs higher visibility than ever. 
Bloggers have won the most attention for their writing about highly topical issues in politics, technology, and other such fields. But we must recognize that most blogs—the vast majority of the millions now online—are not aimed at large audiences yet have high value. For some bloggers, their online journals have essentially replaced the traditional letter home to family and close friends. The value the reader gains from those highly personal blogs must surely be higher per reader than the equivalent value of the most popular sites.

القطعة الخامسة
Why Democracy Needs Investigative Journalism
By Silvio Waisbord
Although today's business pressures and the threat of expensive lawsuits make some news companies nervous about supporting investigative reporting, it remains a strong force in U.S. and Latin American journalism -- and one of the most important contributions that the press makes to democracy. 
In the 1970s, reporters played critical roles in revealing what became the most serious U.S. political scandal in the post-World War II period. Washington journalists pursued the clues left at a petty burglary in the Watergate office building, following them all the way to the White House. The reportage led to congressional investigations and the ultimate resignation of President Richard Nixon. 
The performance of the press during Watergate was held as the mirror that reflected the best that journalism could offer to democracy: holding power accountable. It became a trend in American newsrooms. The profession enjoyed high credibility in the years that followed, and a remarkable increase in journalism school enrollment occurred. 
Almost three decades later, the situation has changed. Investigative journalism does not seem to be the brightest star in the firmament of American news. If the tone of the press was self- congratulatory in the post-Watergate years, pessimism about the state of American journalism is currently widespread. Observers have often argued that increasing media ownership concentration and the drive to sensationalize news coverage have sapped the vigor that investigative reporting requires. Business pressures also deter investigative reporting. Its demands for a great deal of time, human and financial resources frequently conflict with profit expectations and production cost controls. Also, the fact that stories might result in expensive lawsuits makes news companies nervous about supporting investigations. 
Notwithstanding these factors, there has been no shortage of investigative stories produced in the past decade. Major urban newspapers in the United States have produced articles that have revealed corruption, injustice, and environmental mismanagement. Local and network television news frequently produce investigative stories, which generally focus on diverse types of consumer fraud, in areas such as health care, social services, and home mortgages.

[size=13]لكن هناك  جزء ترجمة الاخبار الصحفية التى سيبدأ غداً أول محاضراتها ... فقد صرح الدكتور أنه ستأتى من الاحداث الجارية ولكن سيكون هناك ترجمة لأصعب الكلمات للمساعدة وشكرا[/size]

[size=13]شكر خاص لاستاذ ممدوح [/size]

[size=13]بالتوفيق لينا يارب  [/size]

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وسيأتى الامتحان إما من جزء من أى قطعة أو سيأتى من أجزاء مختلفة من كل القطع بما يوازى فقرتين

معلش مفهمتش يعني ايه ده 
وعندي سؤال في حد عالفيس كان منزل الكلام ده فعلا بس كاتب انو الحاجات دي خاصه بامتحان القاهرة والاقاليم 

ممكن حد يتأكدلنا بكرة الجزء ده متحدد للدول العربية كمان ولا ايه وشكرا يالولي على معلوماتك الحلوة داايما

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يعني الدكتور هيجي جزء من القطعه نترجمه او هيجيب كزا فقره من كل قطعه ونترجمهها 

وانا هحاول ان شاء الله اتاكد ان الحجات دي كمان للدول العربيه

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